تبلیغات

از درج هرگونه تبلیغات و مطالب هرز معذوریم

دانلود رایگان ترجمه مقاله نقش یادگیری مشارکتی در افزایش مهارت های ارتباطی دانش آموزان – Ijelr 2017

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INTRODUCTION

Cooperative learning is not a new teaching strategy, but appeared recently in the field of teaching and learning; but it has its roots in the history of education, so it is important to remember that the cooperative learning strategy started just before World War II. According to Kessler (1992), the cooperative learning strategy finds its roots in in the classroom application a long time ago in the 1970s when the USA began to design a model of study for a classroom context based on cooperation. The cooperative learning strategy was developed by Coleman (1959) as a means to reduce competition between students, namely in American schools. He believes that competition is a negative component in the educational system. He also suggests that instead of encouraging competition in the academic setting which effects the process of education; schools should introduce more collaborative approaches to teaching. Likewise, Sharan (1994) mentions that new waves of cooperative learning appeared in the early seventies, following the pioneering work of John Dewey and later Alice Miel and Herbert Thelen in the 1950s. As the years went by, more exactly in 1975 cooperative learning has become strategy applied by many people and it helped them to promote mutual satisfaction, better communication, acceptance of others and support among the participants of the team, and has shown an increase in a variety of thinking strategies among individuals in the group. Johnson and Johnson (1994) introduce the five elements of cooperative learning as: a) positive interdependence; b) individual accountability; c) face-to-face interaction; d) social skills and; e) processing information, which are considered essential for effective group learning. These elements are cornerstones for teachers who use cooperative learning in their classes. If teachers apply the elements above; they at least guarantee that every student is going to get adequate opportunities to participate in the class activities.

Review of Literature

Cooperative Learning in Teaching English

Cooperative learning can be used to teach any imaginable subject, not just the English language. This strategy requires learners to participate and share their knowledge with other classmates. Once they start learning in groups, they will unobtrusively be engaged in oral practice. In contrast, when it comes to English, it is actually important to use cooperative learning strategy. It is well known that practice makes perfect; which refers to the expertise people gain when they repeat something many times. So, practice is an important component for learning and it is necessary for anyone to become an expert in skill. For example, Sawin (1985, p.235) states that “students need practice in producing comprehensive output using all the language resources they have already acquired”. Therefore, cooperative learning helps learners practice the language they are learning in a very comprehensible way. On the other hand, Wendy (2007) believes that using cooperative learning structures both formally and informally can make lessons into fun, where students are really involved in their learning. He adds that cooperative learning structures create a situation in which tasks will not be completed unless students cooperate. Therefore, each group member must contribute actively in the group so that they can reach their learning goals.