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مشخصات مقاله انگلیسی (PDF)
سال انتشار مقاله  ۲۰۱۵
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی ۱۰ صفحه با فرمت pdf
رشته های مرتبط با این مقاله داروسازی
گرایش های مرتبط با این مقاله فارماکولوژی یا داروشناسی، داروسازی صنعتی یا فارماسیوتیکس و نانوتکنولوژی دارویی
مجله مربوطه

مجله بین المللی تحقیقات دارویی 

International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation

دانشگاه تهیه کننده گروه داروسازی، دانشکده داروسازی، موسسه فناوری برات
کلمات کلیدی این مقاله بیو-توزیع، خود سامانی ناشی از تبخیر، نانوذرات سیلیس مزوپور، پیش سازهای سیلیس، عاملدار کردن سطح، تحویل داروی هدف
رفرنس دارد
نشریه  Jpionline

 

مشخصات و وضعیت مقالات هانیرسی این مقاله (Word)
تعداد صفحات ترجمه تایپ شده با فرمت ورد با قابلیت ویرایش و فونت ۱۴ B Nazanin ۱۸صفحه
ترجمه عناوین تصاویر و جداول ترجمه شده است
ترجمه متون داخل تصاویر ترجمه نشده است
ترجمه متون داخل جداول ترجمه نشده است
درج تصاویر در فایل ترجمه درج شده است
درج جداول در فایل ترجمه درج شده است
درج فرمولها و محاسبات در فایل ترجمه به صورت عکس درج شده است

 


 

چكيده

مقدمه

توليد نانوذراتهاي سيليكاي متخلخل

سنتز نانوذرات سيليكاي مزوپور بر اساس محلول

خود ارايي القا شده با تبخير حلال

فرايند سل-ژل

مكانيسم سنتز نانوذرات سيليكاي مزوپور

پيش سازهاي اصلاح شده ارگانيك

پيش سازهاي سيلان مبتني بر پلي اول مشتق شده از گليسرول

متاسيليكات سديم

مزايا و معايب مواد سيليكاي مزوپور

سازگاري زيستي و بيو توزيع نانوذرات سيليكاي مزوپور

مطالعه سازگاري زيستي در موشها

عاملدار سازي نانوذرات سيليكاي مزوپور

استراتژيهاي پس از سنتز براي عاملدار سازي

استراتژي پيوند پس از سنتز

استراتژي Backfill

اصلاح سطح

اختصاصي بودن هدف

پلي اتيلن گليكول

كاربردهاي نانوذرات سيليكاي مزوپور

تحويل دارو

جذب سلولي نانوذرات سيليكاي مزوپور

بيو سنسور و رديابي سلول

هدف گيري خاص در تومور

تشخيص و عامل تصويربرداری

دارورساني هدفمند نانوذرات سيليكاي مزوپور

روشهاي غير فعال

ارايش سطح فعال

ثبت اختراع نانوذرات سيليكای مزوپور

احتمالات اينده

نتيجه گيری

 


  • بخشی از ترجمه:

نتيجه گيري

اين مطالعه پيشرفت اخير سنتز و عاملدار سازي MSN ها و استفاده از اين نانو مواد را بعنوان رها سازي هدفمند و ابزار بيولوژيكي تحويل دارو با جزئيات توصيف ميكند. از سوي ديگر، روشهاي سنتز براي عاملدار سازيMSNها با ساختار مبتني بر هسته-پوسته ميتوانند مقدار قابل قبولي از نانوذراتها را توليد كنند. بنابراين ميتوانند بعنوان حاملهاي منحصر بفرد دارو جهت غلبه بر عوارض جانبي ناخواسته استفاده شوند. روش چند منظوره براي عاملدارسازي انتخابي MSNها توسعه داده شده است. از اين روي انها يك روش فوق العاده براي كاربرد در زمينه دارورساني، تشخيص و عامل تصويربرداري، و دارو رساني هدفمند در درمان سرطان دارند. بايد تاكيد شود كه يكي از با ارزش ترين خصوصيات نانوذراتهاي سيليكا، امكان استفاده از انها در ادغام مواد مختلف ميباشد كه اين كار بعنوان پايه اي براي رسيدن به يك داروي چند منظوره در زمينه سيستم عامل نانو كه تصوير برداري مالتي مداليته وتشخيص و درمان خودبخودي را ممكن ميساز عمل ميكند. MSNها نانوحاملهاي اميدوار كننده اي جهت انتقال كارامد و بخصوص تحويل داروهاي بشدت سمي در موضع خاص هستند، مانند عوامل شيمي درماني براي درمان موثر سرطان. MSNها رها سازي دارو را بر اساس محرك پاسخ انجام ميدهند و بنابراين عوارض جانبي داروهاي ضد سرطان در سرطان درماني را به حداقل ميرسانند.

 


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CONCLUSIONS

In conclusion, this review describes in detail the recent progress of synthesizing and functionalizing MSNs and using these nanomaterials as targeted release and biological cell delivery vehicles. On the other side, the synthesis methods to functional MSNs with a core-shell structure are able to produce an acceptable amount of nanoparticles. Hence, they can be used as a unique essential drug carrier to overcome unwanted side effects. A versatile approach for the selective functionalization of MSNs has been developed. Hence, they have a wonderful approach for the application in the different field like drug delivery, diagnostic and imaging agent, and target drug delivery in the treatment in cancer. It is important to underline that one of the most valuable characteristics of silica nanoparticles is the possibility to use them to merge different materials, to combine various functionalities, that is to say to act as a basis to obtain multifunctional medicine dedicated nanoplatforms enabling multimodal imaging and simultaneous diagnosis and therapy. MSNPs are promising nanocarriers to efficiently transport and site-specifically deliver highly toxic drugs, like chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment. MSNs are efficiently transported site specific drug delivery of highly toxic drug such chemotherapeutic agents for effective cancer treatment. They have stimuli responsive drug releases so, it enhancing and minimizing the side effects of anticancer drugs in cancer therapy.


 

 

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پژوهشهای جدید در مدیریت و حسابداری

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دانلود رایگان ترجمه مقاله درک و جلوگیری از افت شنوایی ناشی از سر و صدا – الزویر ۲۰۱۳

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Hearing mechanisms

The human auditory system consists of three main peripheral auditory components (outer ear, middle ear, inner ear) and acoustic nerve (8th cranial nerve). The outer ear gathers sound energy and transmits it to the middle ear through the ear canal and the eardrum (or tympanic membrane). The eardrum vibrates from the incoming sound energy and transmits these vibrations to the inner ear, through the tiny bones in the middle ear, known as the ossicles. The middle ear is filled with air and connects to the throat via the eustachian tube that is instrumental in equalizing pressure on either side of the eardrum. The inner ear has two parts, the vestibular system and the cochlea. The vestibular system is an organ of balance rather than of hearing and is primarily responsible for detecting movement of the head and, to a lesser extent, position in space. Vertigo is a main symptom of the damage to the vestibular system.8 The cochlea, shaped like a snail, contains thousands of delicate hair cells (auditory sensory cells) in the organ of Corti. There are two types of hair cells, called inner and outer hair cells. When the sound waves enter the inner ear from the middle ear, the outer hair cells help amplify sound vibrations. The inner hair cells convert these vibrations into electrical signals and send the signals to the brain through the auditory nerve. The brain, then, translates the signals into sound that we recognize and understand. More description on the anatomy and physiology of the auditory system is presented in the paper in this volume by Baiduc et al. The hair cells of the organ of Corti can be damaged by various factors including aging, loud noise, ototoxic chemicals (solvents, asphyxiants), and ototoxic medications (aminoglycoside antibiotics, Loop diuretics, cisplatin, etc.). More elaborate information on hearing loss related to ototoxic chemicals and medication are presented in the paper in this volume written by Campo et al. Among these, exposure to loud noise is the most common cause of irreversible damage to the hair cells, resulting in sensorineural hearing loss.

Types of hearing loss

The human ear and its neurological connections to the brain represent a complex and sensitive hearing mechanism that is vulnerable to damage by different illnesses, injuries, and toxic exposures.9 There are two main types of hearing loss: conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss affects the outer or middle ear that includes the pinna, ear canal, eardrum, and the cavity behind the eardrum. There are various etiologies of conductive hearing loss, with the most common including cerumen impaction, middle ear infections such as otitis media, and tympanic membrane perforations. Conductive hearing losses are often temporary or correctable through increasingly sophisticated surgical techniques or medications as is the case with middle ear infections (otitis media). Sensorineural hearing loss affects the inner ear (sensory) or the auditory nerve (neural) that connects the inner ear to the origin of the nerve in the brain. In current clinical practice, sensory and neural hearing losses are not differentiated regularly and the presence of either is diagnosed as a sensorineural hearing loss. This is mainly due to limitations in the diagnostic techniques used historically to differentiate between these two causes of hearing loss. As techniques for assessing hearing loss are improving, differentiating the source of the loss is becoming more refined, thereby making determination of either sensory or neural loss possible.9 Sensory and neural loss can occur in isolation or be concurrent. Either or both can also co-occur with a conductive component, caused by a pathology-induced reduction in transmission of the sound energy through the outer and middle ears into the inner ear. A hearing loss is classified as a mixed loss when two or more (conductive, sensory, neural) stages of hearing are simultaneously affected.

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مدیریت ورزشی

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دانلود رایگان ترجمه مقاله فرایند بیولوژیکی بهبود خاک در مهندسی عمران – نشریه سال

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Abstract

The concept of using biological process in soil improvement which is known as bio-mediated soil improvement technique has shown greater potential in geotechnical engineering applications in terms of performance and environmental sustainability. This paper presents a review on the soil microorganisms responsible for this process, and factors that affect their metabolic activities and geometric compatibility with the soil particle sizes. Two mechanisms of biomineralization, i.e. biologically controlled and biologically induced mineralization, were also discussed. Environmental and other factors that may be encountered in situ during microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) and their influences on the process were identified and presented. Improvements in the engineering properties of soil such as strength/stiffness and permeability as evaluated in some studies were explored. Potential applications of the process in geotechnical engineering and the challenges of field application of the process were identified.

۱٫ Introduction

Recent studies on applications of bio-mediated soil improvement method have proved the viability of the approach for effective performance and environmental sustainability. The promising outcomes of these studies have shown greater potential of exploring a wider application of the technique in geotechnical engineering. Bio-mediated method of soil improvement has been considered as an inventive and new approach in geotechnical engineering that can be utilized to prevent liquefaction and landslide in loose sand which usually results in foundation deformation and/ or failure (Alvarado, 2009). The great promise of the use of biological treatments has been demonstrated in many applications, such as improving the shear strength and decreasing the permeability of soils (Whiffin et al., 2007; Ivanov and Chu, 2008; Harkes et al., 2010; van Paassen, 2011), improvement in strength and durability of concrete and mortar, remediation of cracks in buildings (Qian et al., 2010; Achal et al., 2013), improvement in engineering properties of soil, and cementation of sand column (Achal et al., 2009a; Dhami et al., 2013). Bio-mediated method of soil improvement generally refers to the biochemical reaction that takes place within a soil mass to produce calcite precipitate to modify some engineering properties of the soil (DeJong et al., 2010). Meanwhile, utilizing the interdisciplinary knowledge of civil engineering, chemistry and microbiology to alter the soil engineering properties in the subsurface has emerged recently (Whiffin et al., 2007; Ivanov and Chu, 2008; Mitchell and Santamarina, 2005; DeJong et al., 2010). The technique utilizes soil microbial processes, which is technically referred to as microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP), to precipitate calcium carbonate into the soil matrix. The calcium carbonate produced binds the soil particles together (thereby cementing and clogging the soils), and hence improves the strength and reduces the hydraulic conductivity of the soils. MICP can be a practicable alternative for improving soil-supporting both new and existing structures and has been used in many civil engineering applications such as liquefiable sand deposits, slope stabilization, and subgrade reinforcement (DeJong et al., 2006; Cheng et al., 2013). It was revealed that microorganisms influence the formation of fine-grained soils and change the behavior of coarse-grained soils such as strength and hydraulic conductivity. They also facilitate chemical reactions within a soil mass, promote weathering and change the chemical and mechanical properties of specimens after sampling. Hence, the effects of these microorganisms on mechanical properties of soils are still not fully discovered in geotechnical engineering field (Mitchell and Santamarina, 2005). Though it was understood that there are more microorganisms in the subsurface than on the ground, and studies of many years have proved the relevance of biological activities in influencing soil behavior, less work has been done in exploring the importance, relevance, usefulness and application of biology in geotechnical engineering. Meanwhile, it is expected that a clear understanding of the impact of microorganisms and biological activity on soil behavior can lead to proper soil characterization and/or classification and even alternative geotechnical engineering solutions. This paper reviews the concept of biomineralization and its applications in improving the engineering properties of soils.

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مطالعات تجربی حسابداری مالی

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دانلود رایگان ترجمه مقاله سنجش روش استخراج کلاژن استخوان برای آنالیز ایزوتوپ پایدار – نشریه سال

بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:

۱٫ Introduction

Stable isotope analyses of d13C and d15N measured in bone collagen are routinely used for the reconstruction of ancient diets and subsistence patterns (e.g., Ambrose, 1993; Bocherens et al., 2006; Honch et al., 2006; Jay and Richards, 2006; Katzenberg, 2000; Richards et al., 1998). Several techniques have been developed to prepare bone samples for isotope analysis. Most of these consider and adjust for factors such as humic acids and lipids that might influence the reproducibility of the measurements (Bronk Ramsey et al., 2004; Brown et al., 1988; Collins and Galley, 1998; Garvie-Lok et al., 2004; Lide´n et al., 1995; Nielsen-Marsh and Hedges, 2000; Semal and Orban, 1995). Generally, following Longin (1971), the extraction methods involve dissolving the mineral matrix in a HCl solution, subsequent solubilisation of collagen at elevated temperature in a weak HCl solution, followed by lyophilisation of the remaining collagen. However, there are various modifications including the addition of a treatment step with NaOH to remove humic acids before solubilisation of the collagen (DeNiro and Epstein, 1981), or the use of ultra-filtration to purify the solubilised collagen (Brown et al., 1988). These recommendations are commonly applied as cleaning steps in order to measure the original collagen used in dietary studies. There are diverse chemical approaches in sample preparation used by different stable isotope laboratories. However, whatever the steps, the laboratories use each others results as references and comparison in dietary studies (e.g. Bayliss et al., 2004; Jørkov, 2002; Keegan, 1989). Previous studies of these extraction methods have examined the effects of ultra filtration in radiocarbon-dating and the contribution of lipids on the stable carbon isotope values (e.g. Bronk Ramsey et al., 2004; Lide´n et al., 1995). Results have shown that ultra-filtration may still leave larger contaminating particles and lipids may alter the carbon signals. We therefore thought it necessary to investigate whether the extraction methods and cleaning steps may influence the isotopic result and hence potentially the interpretation of dietary variation. The specific purpose of this study was to compare three sample preparation methods on well-preserved skeletal material by evaluating the resultant differences in d13C and d15N, collagen quality and collagen yield. The first method (A) includes the treatment with NaOH, the second method (B) includes both ultra-filtration and filtration with Ezee filter separators (5e8 mm) (Elkay Laboratory Product) before lyophilisation as described in Richards and Hedges (1999) and Mu¨ldner and Richards (2005). The third method (C) is a modified version of method B, by excluding the ultra-filtration step. This modified version of method B is also used in laboratories conducting stable isotope analysis in dietary studies (Honch et al., 2006).

۲٫ Materials and methods

The bone samples selected for this study were chosen from a large well documented skeletal collection from the medieval cemetery Ahlgade 15e17 in Holbæk, Denmark (Asmussen, 1997). The cemetery was used between ca. 1100e1573 AD, and contained more than 700 skeletons buried in clay soil. The material was chosen because of its excellent state of preservation (the bones were macroscopically intact with a hard structure and feel (i.e. non-flaky)). Eight bone samples from five individuals were each treated with the three extraction methods. Details on the samples, including age and sex of the individuals are given in Table 1.

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مدیریت دارایی و تامین مالی

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دانلود رایگان ترجمه مقاله تاثیر آلودگی هوا بر قلب و عروق – الزویر ۲۰۱۷

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Background

Air pollution is a major public health issue, leading to millions of premature deaths worldwide. Cardiovascular diseases account for 60—۸۰% of air pollution-related deaths [1]. In line with the campaign launched in 2015 by the European Society of Cardiology, which aims to ‘‘raise awareness of the detrimental effects that the environment can have on the heart’’, we performed a review of publications reporting on the cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Although both indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure have a strong impact on cardiovascular diseases, we have focused our review on outdoor air pollution. We first introduce some basics on air pollution definition and sources, which are needed to present evidence arising from longand short-term epidemiological studies. We then present some pathophysiological evidence, and propose a schematic overview of mechanistic pathways linking air pollution exposure to clinical events. We also present recent data on the enhancing effects of mitigation measures, and some future directions to overcome the limitations in environmental research.

Air pollution basics

General definition

Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components. PM is classified as coarse particles (diameter < 10m, ≥ ۲٫۵ m), fine particles (diameter < 2.5m, ≥ ۰٫۱ m) and ultrafine particles (nanoparticles, diameter < 0.1m). PM has a different composition depending on its source. Carbonaceous particles are derived from combustion sources, such as traffic emission or residential heating, while inorganic particles are represented by, for example, desert dust and mineral dust from agriculture. Carbonaceous particles are carbon based, but carry on their surface an amount of organic chemicals, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and reactive metals [2]. Gaseous pollutants are nitrogen oxides including nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO), ozone, sulphur dioxide (SO2), volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide (CO). Besides their own toxicity, SO2 and nitrogen oxides also contribute to particle formation through complex atmospheric photochemical reactions involving ammonia from agriculture. As they result from gaseous transformation, these particles are called secondary particles, and are essentially composed of inorganic compounds, such as ammonia, sulphates and nitrates. Ozone is a secondary gaseous pollutant, formed through a photochemical reaction involving sunlight and gaseous precursors such as nitrogen oxides or volatile organic compounds.

Outdoor air pollution sources

In Europe, agriculture is a major source of PM2.5. Nevertheless, particles from agriculture are mainly inorganic particles, which are usually considered to be less toxic than carbonaceous particles from combustion sources, such as road traffic. Assuming this difference in toxicity, road traffic and residential heating have the largest impact on outdoor air pollution-related mortality in Europe [1]. In North America, industry and power generation using fossil fuels are also important sources of PM. In Africa, natural sources, such as desert dust and biomass burning (natural or man-made fires), contribute largely to ambient air pollution concentrations. In Asia, residential heating and cooking are the main sources of particles in both outdoor and indoor emissions [1]. Besides the differences between countries and continents, strong differences exist between the main sources of pollutants within the same country, depending on local sources. In large cities, road traffic is a major contributor to global pollutant emissions, and is also the main source of NO2, arising mainly from diesel vehicles. In Paris, for example, road traffic accounts for 30% of PM emissions, as much as the residential sector, and nearly 60% of emissions of nitrogen oxides [3]. SO2 mainly arises from industrial emissions and maritime transport; however, its contribution to air pollution is decreasing over the years.

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