تبلیغات

از درج هرگونه تبلیغات و مطالب هرز معذوریم

دانلود رایگان ترجمه مقاله مرور خانواده های مقاومت حافظه‌دار در حال ظهور – اسپرینگر ۲۰۱۵

بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:

۲ Resistive memristor

Before the advent of the resistive memristor, resistive materials have already been widely utilized in the resistive random access memories (ReRAM) [25–۲۷]. The storage function of ReRAM is realised by an intrinsic physical behaviour observed in ReRAM, namely resistive switching. Because of the resistive switching, the resistive material can be switched between a high resistance state (HRS) and a low resistance state (LRS) under an external electrical stimuli. The switching process from HRS to LRS and the corresponding switching voltage are usually named ‘SET’ process and VSET, while the process from LRS to HRS and the required switching voltage are represented by ‘RESET’ process and VRESET. It is instructive to mention that in most cases, the current stemming from the external stimuli is restricted to a local region with high conductance during ‘SET’ process, whereas it flows uniformly through ReRAM during ‘RESET’ process [28]. It should be also noted that in bistable resistive materials, like some transition metal oxides, there are usually two switching modes, i.e., unipolar switching and bipolar switching, as shown in Fig. 3. Unipolar switching allows for a switching process that is independent of the voltage/current polarity. Therefore, the ‘SET’ process and the ‘RESET’ process is achieved with the same signal polarity. However, the bipolar switching mode gives rise to an opposite signal polarity between the ‘SET’ process and the ‘RESET’ process. The comparison between Figs. 2, 3 clearly shows that the resistive material when operated in the bipolar switching mode exhibits an analogous I–V curve to that of the theoretical memristor. As a consequence, considerable research efforts have been recently dedicated to the development of the memristor using resistive materials such as TiO2 [9, 11, 29], ZnO [30], and TaOx [31, 32], thus triggering a presence of some resistive materials-based memristor prototypes. The architecture of the memristor using resistive materials usually consists of an insulator sandwiched by two metals, also known as MIM structure, as illustrated in Fig. 4. By changing the magnitude and the polarity of the signal applied to the metals (i.e., electrodes here), the sandwiched insulator can be toggled between the ‘ON’ state and the ‘OFF’ state so as to realise the memristive function. Although such a resistance transition phenomenon has been found for many years, the correlated physical mechanism is still not well understood. Today, the electric pulse induced resistance switching (EPIR) effect is the most generally accepted mechanism. The most appealing trait of EPIR arises from its strong field-direction dependence, indicating that the resistance of the system can be toggled by theapplied voltage or current pulses to generate the I–V hysteresis that supplies the function of the resistance memory. Although the secret behind EPIR is still uncovered, the consensus is that the EPIR effect will cause the formation and rupture of a conductive filament (CF) inside the resistive materials [33]. Thermochemical effect has been regarded as one of the most plausible explanations for the CF hypothesis [34–۳۶]. The thermochemical mechanism assumes a large number of O2- ions accumulated around the electrode, thus leading to a formation of oxygen vacancies. With an application of a negative bias to the top electrode, the O2- ions are pushed away from the top electrode, while the oxygen vacancies are attracted towards the top electrode. In this case, the vacancy dopants would drift in the electric field through the most favourable diffusion paths, such as grain boundaries, to form a filamentlike path with a high electrical conductivity [37]. Once the CFs are formed, the current flow that would concentrate on the resulting filaments can trigger a fast growth of these filaments due to the local heating by the concentrated current flow, which corresponds to a ‘SET’ process. The ‘RESET’ process, is postulated to be realized by the thermal rupture of the filaments according to the heat produced in the presence of a large current flow. In contrast to the thermochemical effect, another interpretation ascribed the occurring of the CF to the motion of the oxygen ions that usually appear near crystal defects such as oxygen vacancies and grain boundaries [28, 38, 39]. As shown in Fig. 5a, applying a positive bias to the top electrode would drive the oxygen ions towards the top electrode where the oxygen ions will thereby accumulate. This migration would produce abundant cation vacancies therein Fig. 5b. As the cation vacancies that can create an acceptor level near the valence band are the source of the hole carriers in semiconductors, it is possible for these newly created cation vacancies to be transformed into the nuclei of semiconducting CFs. Subsequently these nuclei will grow with the assist of the electric field to form a CF extending through the whole thickness of the storage medium (Fig. 5c), and finally the memory cell would reach the LRS. Due to the fact that the CF actually grows from anode to cathode, the thinnest region of the CF is regarded to be located near the cathode [28]. As a result, more Joule heating will be accumulated at the thinnest part of the CF when negatively biasing the top electrode. Under this circumstance, the oxygen ions at the thinnest part of the CF will be aggressively accelerated towards the bottom electrode and then be trapped at the storage medium/bottom electrode interface or the grain boundaries of the bottom electrode. This motion would destroy the concentration of the cation vacancies in the thinnest part of the CF, thus resulting in the rupture of the CF, as shown in Fig. 5d. The memory cell will consequently be switched into the HRS.

ادامه‌ی پست

مطالعات شهر ایرانی اسلامی

ادامه‌ی پست

دانلود رایگان ترجمه مقاله آنالیز شبکه و دستگاه کالبدسنجی اپلیکیشن های اجتماعی پیام رسانی آندروید – الزویر ۲۰۱۵

بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:

Abstract

In this research we forensically acquire and analyze the device-stored data and network traffic of 20 popular instant messaging applications for Android. We were able to reconstruct some or the entire message content from 16 of the 20 applications tested, which reflects poorly on the security and privacy measures employed by these applications but may be construed positively for evidence collection purposes by digital forensic practitioners. This work shows which features of these instant messaging applications leave evidentiary traces allowing for suspect data to be reconstructed or partially reconstructed, and whether network forensics or device forensics permits the reconstruction of that activity. We show that in most cases we were able to reconstruct or intercept data such as: passwords, screenshots taken by applications, pictures, videos, audio sent, messages sent, sketches, profile pictures and more.

Methodology

We selected 20 instant messaging/social messaging applications from the Google Play store based on two factors: keyword results and the number of downloads. The keywords used when searching the Google Play Store were: “chat”, “chatting”, “date”, “dating”, “message”, and “messaging” to select the 20 applications. Within these search results we wanted to pick a wide range of applications based on a spectrum of popularity. The applications selected range from 500,000 downloads to over 200 million downloads. We would also like to note that we focused on the sections of these applications with one on one communication. For example, we only studied the “Instagram Direct Feature” and not the Instagram feed feature. Another example is that we only studied the direct messages in Snapchat and not “Snapchat Stories”. We performed network forensics to examine the network traffic to and from the device while sending messages and using the various features of these applications. This testing was performed in a controlled lab environment to reduce network variability due to smartphone devices often operating in changing network boundaries. We also performed a forensic examination of the Android device itself to retrieve information from the device pertaining to our activities using each of the applications. Table 5 shows a list of the tested applications in the order they were tested, their version numbers, and the features they support. Video demonstrations of these tests can be viewed at www. youtube.com/unhcfreg.

Network analysis experimental setup

In our research we used an HTC One M8 (Model #: HTC6525LVW, running Android 4.4.2) as well as an iPad 2 (Model #: MC954LL/A, running iOS 7.1.2). We created two accounts for each application using the Android and iPad 2 a week prior to data collection. The Android device was the target of our examination, and the iPad was used simply as a communications partner to exchange messages with the target device. We used a Windows 7 computer with WiFi and an Ethernet connection to the Internet to set up a wireless access point. This PC was used to capture network traffic sent over WiFi to and from both mobile devices. This set up is shown in Fig. 1.

ادامه‌ی پست

دانلود آهنگ امیر عباس گلاب ستایش

این مطلب از وب سایت موزیکفا به صورت رپ انتشار گردید است.

دانلود آهنگ قدیمی امیر عباس گلاب ستایش

همراهان عزیز رسانه موزیکفا ما را دنبال کنید با ♫ دانلود آهنگ فوق العاده زیبا و دلنشین ستایش با صدای امیرعباس گلاب به همراه تکست و بهترین کیفیت ♫

تیتراژ پایانی مجموعه تلویزیونی «ستایش» کاری از گروه فیلم و سریال شبکه سه سیما تولید سال ۸۸

Download Old Music BY : Amir Abbas Golab | Setayesh With Text And 2 Quality 320 And 128 On Music-fa

متن آهنگ ستایش امیر عباس گلاب

───┤ ♩♬♫♪♭ ├───

حس و حالم خوش نیست، همه چی داغونه…●♪♫

یکی باید باشه تو رو برگردونه●♪♫

گم و گورم، دورم، گیج و ویجم، خسته ام●♪♫

بس که پای پلکمو به دلِ در بسته ام●♪♫

پشتِ سر ویرونه، رو به رو دیواره●♪♫

داره از ابر سیاه دردِسر می باره●♪♫

دلِ مغرور اما دست و پا نمی زنه●♪♫

سنگ از آسمون بیاد، صخـــره جا نمی زنه●♪♫

«تیتراژ مجموعه تلویزیونی ستایش ۱»

چشماتو به روم ببند، خدا چشمش بازه●♪♫

زندگی با گره هاش آدمو می سازه●♪♫

هر کی دل ببُره از رو زمین، قد می کشه●♪♫

هر کی آسمونیه لایقِ ستایشه●♪♫

اگه رفتن، نرسیدن، توی تقدیرِ منه●♪♫

جرمِ بی بخششِ من، اگه عاشق شدنه●♪♫

چشماتو به روم ببند، خدا چشمش بازه●♪♫

زندگی با گره هاش آدمو می سازه●♪♫

───┤ ♩♬♫♪♭ ├───

دانلود آهنگ امیر عباس گلاب ستایش

دانلود آهنگ امیر عباس گلاب ستایش

ادامه‌ی پست

مطالعات مدیریت گردشگری

ادامه‌ی پست

دانلود رایگان ترجمه مقاله از یک ایده دموکراتیک به یک ابزار مدیریتی – ۲۰۱۳

بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:

ABSTRACT

In different political theories, democracy is not reduced to state institutions, but includes the democratization of the whole society, its organizations and enterprises. This idea goes back to the beginnings of modern democratic theory and to Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Social Contract. It was adopted by different socialist thinkers, later on by trade unions and, in the 1960s and 70s, by political scientists such as Carole Pateman and other promoters of participatory democracy. According to this tradition, workplace democracy is considered to be necessary for the realization of democratic ideals like individual autonomy, freedom, voice and participation in all relevant questions influencing citizens’ lives. Parts of this normative idea were realized by trade union movements and laws, especially in Western European countries. Nevertheless, workplace democracy in the sense of the above-mentioned theories remained far from becoming reality. In the 1990s, the idea was co-opted by organizational development and management studies and underwent a change: Workplace democracy, then mostly operationalized as limited participation, became a managerial tool that should help to increase employees’ motivation and efficiency and thereby contribute to entrepreneurial success. In the last few years, however, the original democratic ideal of workplace democracy seems to have been revitalized under conditions of a worldwide economic crisis. This article shows the development and the latest revival of the concept of workplace democracy, and discusses its innovative potential for today’s democratic societies.

Introduction

In Western societies, the term “democracy” has become a kind of empty signifier in political and public discourse in recent decades (Brown, 2010). Politicians with very differing ideological backgrounds often refer to their own arbitrary concept of what a democracy should be. This conglomeration of meanings is one reason for a rising skepticism among citizens towards democracy as such. At the same time, convincing alternatives and innovative democratic concepts, though existent in academic circles, rarely enter the public sphere. The manifold and sometimes arbitrary interpretations of democracy are the result of a vast and controversial scientific and philosophical debate with highly differentiated theoretical approaches. It seems that almost everything has been said about democracy during the centuries-lasting debates among philosophers and political thinkers. While there might be a true core meaning, it must be admitted that a great deal of what has been said has been forgotten. The concept of Workplace Democracy is such a forgotten or, at least, neglected aspect of democratic theory that is nowadays experiencing a revival. In this article, I will try to bring it back to the readers’ memories by tracing its historical development and by discussing it as a possible democratic innovation that could respond to latest skepticism towards representative democracy, supra-nationalization and globalization. In a very general way, workplace democracy is associated with the application of democratic practices to the workplace. Such practices include voting, discussions and deliberative or participatory decision-making. The roots and motivations to claim democratic rights and to establish workplacedemocracy arecomplex. One strand focuses on the realization of democracy as a value, a way of life and self-government, and a method to reach individual autonomy and freedom in a liberal sense. It can also be considered as a means of class struggle in a socialist tradition. According to its managerial strand, workplace democracy can be used as a method to raise workers’ motivation in order to contribute to entrepreneurial efficiency.

۱٫ Workplace democracy as a democratic ideal

The history of democracy is older than the history of industrial relations and alienated work. Modern political thinking and the roots of modern democratic theory date back to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Industrial relations came later, mostly in the nineteenth century when rural economies were more and more replaced by urban industries and when technological progress paved the way for the industrial revolution. A concept of workplace democracy only makes sense in its combination of democratic theory and industrial relations. Basic arguments are given in the political philosophy of the European Enlightenment. Its practical relevance is certainly only developed in the context of industrialization.

۱٫۱ Democracy as a way of life and self-government: the liberal tradition

The history of democratic theory is rich in approaches and assumptions, especially in the modern era. Contrary to the antique Athenian democracy, which was mainly a method of decision making by majority rule, liberal democratic thinkers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau linked it to the liberation and emancipation of the individual. They were convinced that all human beings were, by nature, equal and free. If this is taken seriously, then a democracy consists of much more than the right to vote. As Rousseau (2008: 54) argued: If we ask in what precisely consists the greatest good of all, which should be the end of every system of legislation, we shall find it reduce itself to two main objects, liberty and equality—liberty, because all particular dependence means so much force taken from the body of the State, and equality, because liberty cannot exist without it. In Rousseau’s understanding, a democratic system has the task of realizing and guaranteeing liberty for, and equality among, citizens. The government is an intermediate body in charge of maintaining liberty and individual freedom (Rousseau, 2008: 60). In his considerations on the social contract and on education, Rousseau was interested in the relationship between the individual and the collective. He was one of the first to stress that social conditions have a strong impact on citizens’ lives and their personalities (Plamenatz, 1963). The social contract between all citizens should guarantee equality for the sake of individual liberty. Equality does not end with the realization of equal political rights. It must go further (Rousseau 2008: 54): … by equality, we should understand, not that the degrees of power and riches are to be absolutely identical for everybody; but that power shall never be great enough for violence, and shall always be exercised by virtue of rank and law; and that, in respect of riches, no citizen shall ever be wealthy enough to buy another, and none poor enough to be forced to sell himself When Rousseau wrote these lines in the eighteenth century, he could not know that, some decades later, a tremendous gap between the rich and the poor would be the reality of nineteenth-century industrial societies, undermining the democratic principles he had in mind. Rousseau cannot be considered as an early socialist in the strict sense of the word, but one thing can hardly be denied: he put his finger on a very crucial point for democratic societies, namely the distribution of wealth. Moreover, the dictum that “no citizen shall ever be wealthy enough to buy another, and none poor enough to be forced to sell himself”, gets a deeper meaning with regard to industrial societies, which are based on the fact that labour force is sold to entrepreneurs who literally buy the workers. Thus, long before Marx and Engels promoted a revolutionary class struggle, Rousseau delivered a basic theoretical argument for a kind of workplace democracy from a liberal point of view. This interpretation is reflected in Carole Pateman’s reading of the French philosopher. In her opinion, he is the “theorist of participation par excellence” (Pateman 1970: 22). According to his democratic ideal, participation should not be limited to the political sphere, but spread over all social relations in order to avoid suppression and inequality. If a system must guarantee the self-government of each single citizen, then it has to go far beyond the political. It then includes all social arenas where individuals act and live. In modern societies, the workplace cannot be left undemocratic. As a consequence of such an understanding of democracy, Rousseau was aware of the necessity to educate people in order to liberate them from political oppression (Rousseau, 1979). The educational dimension in Rousseau’s work is a key aspect of liberal democratic thinking that was taken up by different philosophers of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. John Dewey promoted the democratization of all social fields and stressed the importance of education. The American philosopher (Dewey, 2008: 221) pointed out that: … if the methods of regulation and administration in vogue in the conduct of secondary social groups are non- democratic, whether directly or indirectly or both, there is bound to be unfavorable reaction back into the habits of feeling, thought and action of citizenship in the broadest sense of that word For Dewey, exclusion from participation was a form of suppression that should not be accepted in any social relationship: “In the broad and final sense all institutions are educational in the sense that they operate to form the attitudes, dispositions, abilities and disabilities that constitute a concrete personality” (Dewey, 2008: 221). By saying this, Dewey who, contrary to Rousseau, already knew industrial society, stressed the importance of organizational democracy. A first argument for workplace democracy can thus be taken from liberal democratic thinkers. In their view, democracy is more than just a method of governing. It includes and promotes individual freedom and self-government and is closely linked to education and empowerment in all social fields.

ادامه‌ی پست

مطالعات و سیاست های اقتصادی

ادامه‌ی پست

دانلود آهنگ امیر عباس گلاب و حمید صفت بخشش

این مطلب از وب سایت موزیکفا به صورت رپ انتشار گردید است.

دانلود آهنگ قدیمی امیر عباس گلاب و حمید صفت بخشش

کاربران عزیز رسانه موزیکفا هم اکنون می توانید ♫ آهنگ بسیار زیبای بخشش با صدای امیرعباس گلاب و حمید صفت به همراه تکست و بهترین کیفیت را دانلود کنید ♫

تنظیم قطعه : مهدی سفیدگر | میکس و مسترینگ : مهیار رضوان

Download Old Music BY : Amir Abbas Golab ft. Hamid Sefat | Bakhshesh With Text And 2 Quality 320 And 128 On Music-fa

متن آهنگ بخشش امیر عباس گلاب و حمید صفت

───┤ ♩♬♫♪♭ ├───

از چی بگم؟ از حالم، خودم، از فردام بگم…●♪♫

دست بردار●♪♫

منو تو این حالِ خودم بذار و برو●♪♫

دست بردار●♪♫

از تو نه، از خودم پرم●♪♫

تو این حال، خوبم، ترکم کن●♪♫

دنیا خارم کرد، دنیا قانعم کردم●♪♫

دنیا…●♪♫

درکم کن●♪♫

هنوزم می شه بخشید همو●♪♫

مریض و گیج و جنگی نبود●♪♫

غریب و نیش و زخمیش نزد●♪♫

دِلارو حرفِ تحقیر نکرد●♪♫

هنوزم می شه بخشید منو●♪♫

منی که که پست و لغزیدمو●♪♫

منی که حرف خالیـــمو●♪♫

همین امشب می زنم ریشمو●♪♫

می زنم!●♪♫

خیلی بده واسه مَرد بگن حرف زد و عمل نکرد●♪♫

تنظیم قطعه : مهدی سفیدگر

می زنم!●♪♫

خیلی بده که نباشه دو قِرون بکنه حرف، سینه زخم●♪♫

می زنم!●♪♫

اما بدون حرفو باز مردم می زنن●♪♫

پَه تیریپی نی با خدا تو بیا و مشتی باش●♪♫

هرچند ما پیچیدیم و رفتیم و زدیمو نگشتیم باش●♪♫

هرچند که دلمون یه دست نبود و یه جوری چربی داشت●♪♫

اما بالا سَری آبرو دارو، بدون لنگ نذاشت●♪♫

ما که رسوای عالمیم چند چندیم باش●♪♫

این روزا خاموشـــم، سردم، بی حسم، لمسم، می ترســـم●♪♫

جونی نیست●♪♫

انگار نوری نیست●♪♫

حتی از سایه ام می ترســم●♪♫

راهی نیست، تکیه گاهی نیست●♪♫

ای خدا خسته ام…●♪♫

می فهمی؟●♪♫

میــــرم من●♪♫

آره میـــرم من●♪♫

حتی از مرگم می ترســم●♪♫

ببین چه تنهام●♪♫

غروبِ فردام●♪♫

عذابو بردار و ببین ببین چه تنهام●♪♫

دریا دریا دریا●♪♫

بیا و دریاب●♪♫

لیلا لیلا لیلام●♪♫

تویی به والله●♪♫

درست تنهام●♪♫

فردام خودم، دلم، زیرخاک●♪♫

اما حرفام، رزمام، صدام رسد از زیرِ خاک●♪♫

دلم غوغا غوغا●♪♫

میکس و مسترینگ : مهیار رضوان

زدم هربار فریاد●♪♫

می شم اونی که تو می خوای از فردا فردا فردا●♪♫

اما حرفام، لفضام، دروغ، شرمسار شرمسار●♪♫

الله الله الله●♪♫

تو که می بخشیم بارها●♪♫

اما این زنها، مردا، رفقا، داشیم، بابا●♪♫

رفقا مادر بابام●♪♫

بگذریم بابا●♪♫

ما که گذشتیم●♪♫

حاج آقا●♪♫

الله الله الله●♪♫

الله الله الله●♪♫

───┤ ♩♬♫♪♭ ├───

دانلود آهنگ امیر عباس گلاب و حمید صفت بخشش

دانلود آهنگ امیر عباس گلاب و حمید صفت بخشش

ادامه‌ی پست

دانلود رایگان ترجمه مقاله رویبوس، از چای گیاهی تا گیاه-داروئی بالقوه – الزویر ۲۰۱۱

بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:

Abstract

Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) Dahlg. (Fabaceae, Tribe Crotalarieae), an endemic South African fynbos species, is cultivated to produce the well-known herbal tea, rooibos. It is currently sold in more than 37 countries with Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Japan and the United States of America representing 86% of the export market in 2010. Its caffeine-free and comparatively low tannin status, combined with its potential health-promoting properties, most notably antioxidant activity, contributes to its popularity. First marketed in 1904 in its fermented (oxidised) form, green rooibos is a new product recently on the market. The utilisation of rooibos has also moved beyond a herbal tea to intermediate value-added products such as extracts for the beverage, food, nutraceutical and cosmetic markets. Its potential as a phytopharmaceutical, shown in recent scientific studies, has not yet been exploited. This review focuses on past and current research aimed at enhancing the value of rooibos herbal tea as a specialised, niche product and expanding its value-adding potential against the background of its traditional use and the current market. The focus falls specifically on aspects such as composition, processing, quality and rooibos as food and potential medicine.

۱٫ Introduction

The genus Aspalathus (Fabaceae, Tribe Crotalarieae) comprises more than 270 species of which most are endemic to the Cape Floristic Region (Dahlgren, 1968). Rooibos tea, produced from A. linearis (Burm.f.) Dahlg., had no commercial value at the beginning of the 20th century, but today it is a wellknown herbal tea, enjoyed in more than 37 countries. A recent report by the Swiss Business Hub South Africa (Anon, 2007) stated that ‘Rooibos appears to be headed towards becoming the second most commonly consumed beverage tea ingredient in the world after ordinary tea (Camellia sinensis)’. In South Africa it is well established, enjoying popularity amongst an estimated 10.9 million households (data supplied by SA Rooibos Council (SARC), 2011). Several reviews dealing with rooibos have been published over the years since Cheney deemed it of too insignificant economic importance as a beverage to include it in a review of the biology and economics of the global beverage industry (Cheney, 1947). A different point of view, appreciating its value as a beverage with wide appeal, was later offered (Cheney and Scholtz, 1963). In her review, Morton (1983) campaigned for wider recognition and better distribution of rooibos in the United States of America. It continued to fascinate researchers and recent reviews cover diverse topics such as the development path of rooibos (Rampedi and Olivier, 2008), bioactivity and potential health benefits (Joubert et al., 2008a; Marnewick, 2010; McKay and Blumberg, 2007), and production, processing and quality aspects of rooibos tea and related products (Joubert and Schulz, 2006; Joubert et al., 2008a). The relevance of the major rooibos flavonoids in the diet in terms of their bioactivity, bioavailability and potential herb–drug interactions were addressed by Joubert et al. (2009a). The major focus of the present review will be on past and current research aimed at enhancing the value of rooibos herbal tea as a specialised, niche product and expanding its value-adding potential against the background of its traditional use and the current market. Within the context of enhancing the value of rooibos, aspects such as composition, processing, quality, and rooibos as food and potential medicine (phytopharmaceutical) will be discussed.

۲٫ Utilisation of Aspalathus linearis

The first person to realise the commercial potential of rooibos as a herbal tea was Benjamin Ginsberg, a merchant of Clanwilliam, who started marketing it in 1904. He obtained the tea from descendants of the Khoi who crudely processed it during the warm summer months. It was, however, only by 1930 that the agricultural value of rooibos was recognised by a medical practitioner and nature lover, P. Le Fras Nortier of Clanwilliam. His early cultivation experiments, carried out with the help of local farmers, O. Bergh and H. Riordan (Anon, 1985), laid the foundation for the industry. Growing participation of other farmers in rooibos production and increased demand over the years expanded the area under cultivation to 36 000 ha (Pretorius, 2007), with production mainly concentrated in the Clanwilliam area (Fig. 1). Since expansion has threatened biodiversity of the Greater Cederberg Biodiversity Corridor, SARC in partnership with CapeNature, formed the Rooibos Biodiversity Initiative. One of its aims was to undertake a joint planning process for expansion to minimise loss of threatened natural habitat (Pretorius, 2007). Following this, a current initiative of SARC is to establish the Right Rooibos Sustainability Standard (http://sarooibos.org.za). In the early years, different Aspalathus species and ecotypes, naturally occurring in the Cederberg mountain area, were used to produce rooibos tea (Dahlgren, 1968, 1988). Today only the so-called red type or Rocklands type, originally from the Pakhuis Pass area, is of commercial importance. The red type is divided into the selected, improved Nortier type (cultivated; Fig. 2), and the Cederberg type (wild-growing). The latter type has broader and coarser leaves than the Nortier type (Morton, 1983). Characteristics associated with the cultivated type are bright green, needle-like leaves on straight, slender branches with relatively short internodes. The leaves should turn redbrown when bruised (Dahlgren, 1968).

ادامه‌ی پست

منظر

ادامه‌ی پست